The nomadic people were the very first to settle in Afghanistan, doing so in the highlands in 1500 BC. They later allied with the Persian Empire as well as remained there till Alexander Magno arrived. Afterward, it was taken over by the Buddhist Kushans as well as the Bactrians. Muslims invaded the nation through the Turks in the middle of the 7th century as well as ruled the region until the advent of the Mongols under Gengis Khan, which occupied a sizable portion of what is now Afghanistan. Persian Sofawes conquered the remaining lands in the 18th century.
Ahmad Shah Durrani is credited with founding the country of Afghanistan. He united all the nomadic tribes in 1747 by waging war against India and Persia and established a kingdom that ruled till 1973. With the help of Russia, many Persians assaulted the nation during the nineteenth century to advance reach the Indian Ocean. Britain dispatched troops, improved the country’s position, and appointed sympathetic governors.
Despite all, the local tribes in Afghanistan never welcomed the English, which led to their harassment. After multiple clashes, Afghanistan regained its sovereignty and independence in 1921. The monarchy left power in 1973 following a military takeover led by Daoud Kan, as well as the republic stabilized.
Short History of Afghanistan
Soviets and Afghans engaged in a civil war when the Soviet Union invaded its forces in Afghanistan during1979 to defend the communist regime. The Soviet troops withdrew during 1986-1989, while Muyahidin sparked a new civil conflict between both factions. Mohamed Najibulá resigned as president in 1992, as well as the guerrilla parties later came together to create a government alliance. The Taliban seized Kabul in 1996, ushering in a hardline administration. Since that time, the country of Afghanistan has indeed been ruled by strict fundamentalism of both religion and politics, while Taliban opposition to NATO’s takeover of Kabul in 2001 was minimal.
The Loya Jirga, or great council, chooses Hamid Karzai as the country’s interim president in June. Karzai selects the officials of his cabinet who will hold office until 2004, whenever elections must be held.
In 2003, NATO assumes control of protection in Kabul amidst an uptick in violence. The operation is the security agency’s first-ever overseas commitment.
Considering input from approximately 500,000 individuals, many of whom participated in public hearings in communities, the Loya Jirga approves a new constitution. The position of prime minister is abruptly eliminated, even though the latest constitution specifies a president as well as two vice presidents. Dari and Pashto are the main languages, as stated in the constitution. Additionally, the constitutional amendment demands gender equality.
There are general elections. 18 candidates for president, including interim president Karzai, are up for election, and over 10.5 million people have registered to vote. At 55% of the votes, Karzai is declared the winner.
The first legislative elections in almost 30 years are held in the country. The calm voting resulted in the initial meeting of the legislature in December.
NATO extends its peacekeeping mission to the southern region of Afghanistan amid ongoing fighting among al-Qaida and Taliban members with Afghan government troops. Taliban insurgents conduct a violent series of suicide strikes and operations against the multinational troops just after the military took control of the NATO forces.
The Taliban leader Mullah Dadullah was reportedly killed when in an American-led raid in southern Afghanistan, according to the NATO and Afghan governments.
Richard Holbrooke is appointed by President of that time Barack Obama as a special representative to Afghanistan as well as Pakistan. Additional to the 17,000 additional combat soldiers he previously requested, Mr. Obama proposes a new plan for the Afghanistan conflict that will send more army as well as civilian instructors to the nation. The plan also calls for aiding Pakistan in its conflict with extremists.
After one U.S. soldier shoots 16 civilians in their houses, Former President Karzai demands that American forces withdraw to their camps and abandon Afghan towns.
Obama set a deadline for drastically lowering American troop levels in Afghanistan until 2016. Obama decided not to evacuate American troops by the end of his administration and will leave the presidency in 2017 having 5,500 troops still stationed in Afghanistan.
Afghanistan’s status was still quite unstable and constantly shifting.
What’s Recently Happening in Afghanistan?
The security environment is exceedingly risky and might quickly become more unstable. The threat of terrorism was quite high and persistent across Afghanistan.
The capacity to assist people on the ground is severely constrained as a result of the evacuation of all NATO Forces personnel from Hamid Karzai Air Base as well as the conclusion of the clearance operation on August 31.
International donors promptly suspended the majority of nonhumanitarian aid and put millions of USD worth of property on hold once the Taliban took over the nation. Due to the continued drought, food crisis, and potential fourth phase of COVID-19, the majority of health facilities have closed, as well as the industry has collapsed (rising to the prospect of near-universal destitution). Crisis for four decades has made the nation less resilient to future shocks. If they can’t find the resources they require inside Afghanistan, people may be forced to leave the nation more frequently.
As resources grow limited and requirements are not satisfied, Afghan women are becoming more in danger of gender-based assault, forced marriage, trafficking, including torture. Gains made in fields like maternity care could be undone if the healthcare system collapses.
Any limitations on women’s capability to work as well as to make sure self-sufficiency as well as girls’ potential to get an education that is particular to gender would increase these dangers. Any governmental or municipal restrictions on women working in relief would undermine the humanitarian effort since many women are unable to access services provided by male staff members.